Gazella subgutturosa marica
1) General Zoological Data
"The goitered gazelle, Gazella subgutturosa, inhabits desert and sub-desert steppes of the Arabian peninsula and southwestern Asia to northern China and Mongolia. Four subspecies are recognized by Groves (1985), two of which are presently maintained in captivity in North America. The Arabian sand gazelle, G. s. marica, was once common in the Arabian peninsula, ranging north through eastern Jordan and Iraq, where its range integrated with that of G. s. subgutturosa, commonly known as the Persian or goitered gazelle. Persian gazelles once ranged from eastern Turkey through Iran, Pakistan and Soviet Central Asia. The two forms that are not maintained in North American collections are the Xinjiang goitered gazelle, G. s. yarkandensis, found in the deserts of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China, and the Mongolian goitered gazelle G. s. hilleriana, native to the Gobi and Caidam (Groves, 1985, see Fig. 1). The only captive records of these forms are from European collections. These records indicate that G. s. hilleriana specimens were present in the Opel Zoo as recently as the 1970's, while four G. s. yarkandensis were held by the Berlin Zoo from 1904 to 1906."
This information has been taken from the studbook report's initial statement (Carter & Kingswood, 1991). Relatively small colonies of sand gazelles are now held in a few zoos, both in Europe and in the USA. It has apparently been difficult to differentiate clearly between the different phenotypes by mere inspection of the four subspecies, if this is possible at all. This is also apparent from the next two photographs shown here. Perhaps specific phenotypes have special, as yet unrecognized chromosomal characteristics as well. I am not aware that such comparisons (karyotypes with photographs) have ever been attempted. Rostron (1972) did a careful study of skull measurements of Arabian gazelles and thereby assigned species designation.
The sand gazelle, as well as some related gazelles (e.g. slender-horned) have also been called "rheem" or "rhim", without proper identification of the species. Nevertheless, parasites are named after the "rheem" (e.g. Eimeria rheemi).
Female sand gazelles usually have horns, while typical goitered gazelles rarely do. They are also lighter in coloration and smaller than "Persian gazelles" (G. s. subgutturosa). The animals weigh up to 22 kg; newborns are approximately 2.5 kg.
|Distribution of goitered gazelles from Carter & Kingswood, 1991).|
|Sand gazelle from the San Diego Wild Animal Park.|
|Note the different phenotype of this sand gazelle from the San Diego Zoo.|
|Sand gazelle at San Diego Wild Animal Park.|
|Sand gazelle at San Diego Wild Animal Park.|
General Gestational Data
Goitered gazelles produce twins in approximately 1/3 of gestations; occasionally triplets are born (Walther, 1968). The gazelles mature in 1 ½ years and are said to have a gestational length of 5-5.5 months.
General Characterization of the Placenta
|Fetal surface of one twin sand gazelle at term. Short, frayed umbilical cord.|
|Maternal surface of one sand gazelle twin. Note variably-sized cotyledons.|
|Peculiar surface granularities (faint white arrows) are due to subchorionic degenerative changes.|
|5) Details of fetal/maternal barrier|
|Delivered sand gazelle placenta with moderately edematous (autolytic) swelling of villi.|
|The reddish, subchorionic material is the degenerated debris that is seen on some cotyledonary surfaces.|
|The same debris under higher magnification.|
|The ramifications of the villi show a remarkable capillary presence immediately beneath the trophoblast, and some binucleated trophoblastic cells.|
One placenta had a portion of the umbilical cord attached. It was fragmented and measured 5 cm in length and 0.8 cm in width. The cords possessed 4 blood vessels. There were no spirals.
|Four blood vessels in the umbilical cord with a central allantoic duct. This one happens to contain blood from delivery. Note the many smaller vessels in the cord.|
|The allantoic duct carries, artefactually, blood from delivery and is lined by urothelium.|
This has not been studied.
|Amnionic epithelium on the left and allantoic sac lining on the right with a columnar epithelium and many blood vessels.|
|Allantoic sac epithelium on the left and trophoblast (between caruncles/cotyledons) on the right.|
|Allantoic epithelium left and trophoblast (between cotyledons) right.|
Trophoblast external to barrier
No implanted specimens have been studied and thus it is unknown whether trophoblast invasion occurs. But, in view of the general similarities to other ungulate placentations, this is unlikely.
Carter, S. and Kingswood, S.: Goitered Gazelle. North American Regional Studbook First edition. Sedgwick County Zoo & Botanical Garden, Wichita, Kansas, 1991.
Effron, M., Bogart, M.H., Kumamoto, A.T. and Benirschke K.: Chromosome studies in the mammalian subfamily Antilopinae. Genetica 46:419-444, 1976.
Fenwick, B.W.: Cryptosporidiosis in a neonatal gazella. JAVMA 183:1331, 1983.
Granjon, L., Vassart, M., Greth, A. and Cribiu, E.-P.: Genetic study of sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica) from Saudi Arabia. Chromosomal and isozymic data. Z. Säugetierk. 56:169-176, 191.
Griner, L.A.: Pathology of Zoo Animals. Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego, California, 1983.
Groves, C.P.: An introduction to the gazelles. Chinkara: Bulletin of the Gazelle Research Group. 1(1):4-16, 1985.
Hussein, H.S. and Mohammed, O.B.: Eimeria rheemi sp. n. (Apicomplex: Eimeriidae) from the Arabian Sand Gazelle, Gazella subgutturosa marica (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in Saudi Arabia. J. Helminthol. Soc. Wash 59:190-194, 1992.
Kingswood, S.C., Kumamoto, A.T., Sudman, P.D., Fletcher, K.C. and Greenbaum, I.F.: Meiosis in chromosomally heteromorphic goitered gazelle, Gazella subgutturosa (Artiodactyla, Bovidae). Chromosome Research 2:37-46, 1994.
Mohamed, A., Abbas, J. and Salch, M.: Natural diet of the Arabian Rheem gazelle, Gazella subgutturosa marica. J. Arid Environm. 20:371-374, 1991.
Mohammed, O.B. and Flamand, J.R.: Experimental infection of Arabian sand gazelles, Gazella subgutturosa marica with Eimeria rheemi. J. Parasitol. 8:356-37, 1996.
Mohammed, O.B., Davies, A.J., Hussein, H.S. and Daszak, P.: Sarcocystis infections in gazelles at the King Khalid Wildlife Research Centre, Saudi Arabia. Vet. Rec. 146:218-2, 2000.
Orlov, in Shi, L.: Recent trends in mammalian cytogenetics in China. La Kromosoma II-45:1458-1467, 1987.
Rietkerk, F.E., Delima, E.C. and Mubarak, S.M.: The hematological profile of the mountain gazelle (Gazella gazella): variations with sex, age, capture method, season, and anesthesia. J. Wild. Dis. 30:6976, 1994.
Rostron, J.: A multivariate statistical study the skull measurements of five taxa of gazelles. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 4:1-14, 1972.
A.J., Brown, N., Pereladova, O.B., Bahloul, K., Lacroix, A. and Soldatova,
N.: Comparative analysis of reproductive cycles in female Persian gazelle
(Gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa) (Central Asia) and sand gazelle
(Gazella subgutturosa marica) (Arabian Peninsula). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
Vassart, M., Greth, A., de la Farge, F. and Braun, J.P.: Serum chemistry values for Arabian sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica). J. Wildl. Dis. 30:426-428, 1994.
Vassart, M., Granjon, L. and Greth, A.: Genetic study of Gazella gazella: chromosomal and allozymic data. C. R. Acad. Sc. III 318:27-33, 1995.
Walther, F.: Die Gazellen und ihre Verwandten. In, Gzimeks Tierleben. Volume 13. Kindler-Verlag Zürich, 1968.
Walther, F.: Verhalten der Gazellen. Neue Brehms Bücherei, Ziemsen Verlag, Wittenberg, 1968.
Wurster, D.H.: Sex chromosome translocations and karyotypes in bovid tribes. Cytogenetics 11:197-207, 1972.
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