|Chinese goral at San Diego Zoo.|
|Young Chinese goral at San Diego Zoo.|
General Gestational Data
Adult gorals weigh around 22-35 kg and may live at least for 17 years. Newborns weigh around 2 kg. There is usually a single young (Dolan, 1963). Twins are the exception, but they have been reported. Sexual maturity is attained at 2 years. The length of gestation is said to be 250-260 days (+/- 7 to8 months). Dolan (1963) suggested it to be 180 days, but Puschmann (1984) lists 215-245 days as the gestational length. Not much literature exists on these rare animals. Soma et al. (1994) suggested that "inbreeding depression" has affected the colony held at the Japanese Serow Center.
General Characterization of the Placenta
Delivered placenta of term goral pregnancy.
|Pregnant uterus of Chinese goral.|
|Opened uterus with fetus. Note the brownish, large allantoic sac beneath the fetus.|
|Opened uterus with the attached placenta and yellow hippomanes.|
|Implanted cotyledon with the myometrium below. Uterine glands are mainly located at the margins of the cotyledon.|
|Another cotyledon of the same goral specimen.|
Details of fetal/maternal barrier
There is direct apposition of the trophoblastic epithelium to the endometrial epithelium. Invasion of the endometrium does not occur. The trophoblast is cuboidal and single-layered. Many binucleated trophoblastic cells are present and found anywhere over the villous surface. The connective tissue of the villi is scant and appeared edematous under the chorionic surface because of autolysis. Giant cells were absent. The maternal endometrial epithelium is relatively thin adjacent to the villous surfaces. Beneath the chorionic plate, the trophoblast is darkly pigmented a brown-yellow. This is presumed to be the result of maternal blood exudation.
|The chorion is above, and major stem villi extend downward. They are somewhat edematous (bluish) because of autolysis. Note the brownish pigmentation of the trophoblast at the undersurface of the chorionic plate.|
|This is the edge of a cotyledon with the villi located within the white maternal spaces, having retracted from the maternal tissues. Note the peripheral (blue) endometrial glands.|
|Higher magnification of villous surfaces with binucleated cells (Bi).|
The umbilical cord was 9 cm long and had numerous fine granules on its surface. It possessed two arteries, two veins, a large allantoic duct, and numerous smaller blood vessels mainly surrounding the allantoic duct. The cord was not spiraled. The allantoic duct epithelium was thin and of urothelial type. An additional specimen had a 20 cm long cord.
|Umbilical cord (arteries above) and allantoic duct in the center between the arteries. Note the superficial squamous nodules.|
|Surface of umbilical cord with focus of squamous metaplasia.|
|Allantoic duct of umbilical cord with adjacent small blood vessels.|
This has not been studied.
|Higher magnification of yellow hippomanes.|
|Portion of the hippomanes with calcium deposits and numerous birefringent crystals.|
|Surface of amnion with squamous nodule at left and allantois at right.|
|Myometrium and endometrium between the cotyledons. Many endometrial glands are present; the chorioallantoic membrane is at top and appears detached. This area would correspond to an "areola".|
Trophoblast external to barrier
There is no extravillous trophoblast or invasion of the endometrium.
Dolan, J.M.: Beitrag zur systematischen Gliederung des Tribus Rupicaprini Simpson, 1945. Z. zool. Syst. Evolutionsfschg. 1:311-407, 1963.
Fischer, H. und Hohn, H.: Der Karyotyp der Serau (Capricornis sumatrensis, Bechstein, 1979). Giessener Beitr. Erbpathol. Zuchthyg. 4:8-15, 1972.
Gray, A.P.: Mammalian Hybrids. A Check-list with Bibliography. 2nd edition. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux Farnham Royal, Slough, England, 1972.
Griner, L.A.: Pathology of Zoo Animals. Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego, California, 1983.
Nowak, R.M.: Walker's Mammals of the World. 6th ed. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1999.
Patton, M.L., Aubrey, L., Edwards, M., Rieches, R., Zuba, J. and Lance, V.A.: Successful contraception in a herd of Chinese goral (Nemorhaedus goral arnouxianus) with melengestrol. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 31:228-230, 2000.
Puschmann, W.: Zootierhaltung. Vol. 2, Säugetiere. VEB Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag Berlin, 1989.
Soma, H., Kada, H., Matayoshi, K., Kiyokawa, T., Ito, T., Miyayoshi, M. and Nagase, K.: Some chromosomal aspects of Naemorhedus goral (Goral) and Procapra gutturosa (Mongolian Gazelle). Proceed. Japan Acad. , Series B, 56:273-277, 1980.
Soma, H., Kada, H., Mori, Y., Ino, O. and Hayakawa, T.: Breeding control of serow (Capricornis) and goral (Nemorhedus) in Japan Serow Center. Verhandl. Ber. Erkrg. Zootiere 36:49-54, 1994.
Wurster, D.H: Sex-chromosome translocation and karyotypes in bovid tribes. Cytogenetics 11:197-207, 1972.
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