Family: Callitrichidae - Callicominidae(nae)
1) General Zoological Data
The Goeldi's monkey is one of the many South American tree-dwelling small primates in Amazonia whose ecology and general characteristics have been described in detail by Heltne et al. (1981). It is considered to be an endangered species. Although similar in size to marmosets and tamarins, these species differ in many respects. Goeldi's monkey for instance does not produce twins and has a third molar tooth, absent in marmosets and tamarins. This is but one reason why it is generally considered to be more primitive. It is presumed that the Goeldi's monkey, one of the "dwarf species", split off the ancestral stock of South American primates prior to the development of marmosets (Dutrillaux et al., 1988). These authors discussed the presumed phylogeny in detail. Martin (1992), who considered this problem in modern detail, felt nevertheless that the species should be classed with other callithricids, rather than in a placed into a separate family. That publication summarizes all the controversial views that pertain to the placement of this species with marmosets and tamarins into one monophyletic group. Some controversy, however, still exists in the appropriate assignment of this animal. Longevity of about 18 years.
|Goeldi's monkeys at San Diego Zoo.|
General Gestational Data
Gestational length is approximately (150)-155 days with a singleton born. Twins occur only rarely in captivity. Newborns weigh between 30-50 g; adults are 393-860 g (Nowak, 1999).
No studies of early implantation have been described for this species. The uterus is unicornuate.
General Characterization of the Placenta
|Placenta of Goeldi's monkey from publication of Soma and Kada (1989). The photograph was kindly supplied by Dr. Hiroaki Soma, Tokyo.|
|Macroscopic appearance of Goeldi placenta with fused disks, one smaller than the other.|
|5) Details of fetal/maternal barrier|
|Surface of placenta with detached amnion and the chorion above, villous tissue below.|
|Large chorioallantoic artery in chorion above, amnion at top left.|
|Villous structure of Goeldi's monkey. Note the absence of hematopoiesis in the villi.|
|The "floor" of a mature Goeldi's monkey placenta showing much decidual necrosis, and fibrin accumulation.|
|Higher magnification of villous structure with sparse syncytium and no villous hematopoiesis.|
contrast to tamarins, none of the three placentas observed by Soma and Kada
(1989) and those seen by myself had villous hematopoiesis. There is an unusual
amount of basal decidual necrosis, similar to what is seen in tamarins.
The villous structure is somewhat trabecular, but not so pronounced as that
of tamarins. The trophoblast is single-layered by light microscopy at least
in term placentas. It is likely, however, that electron microscopy would
disclose cytotrophoblast underlying the syncytium. At the implantation site,
numerous large "X-cells" (extravillous trophoblast) are present.
No such deposits of extravillous trophoblast exist in the villous portion
of the placenta, unlike that seen in simians.
Trophoblast external to barrier
|The "floor" of mature placentas always has a large amount of fibrin and fibrinoid accumulation, in addition to decidual necrosis. The blue cells are "X-cells" (extravillous trophoblast).|
No other remarkable endometrial features have been recorded.
Soma and Kada (1989) stained their placentas with anti-hCG antibodies and failed to demonstrate the presence of gonadotropins in that manner. Ziegler et al. (1990), on the other hand, identified urinary chorionic gonadotropins 18 days after presumed ovulation, with elevated titers remaining to day 45 days. The polyestrous animals have a cycle of 22-24 days, estrus lasting 7 days. Other endocrine studies come from Carroll et al. (1990) and Ziegler et al. (1990).
Other remarks - What additional Information is needed?
Bender, M.A. and Mettler, L.E.: Chromosome studies of primates. II Callithrix, Leontocebus and Callimico. Cytologia 25:400-404, 1960.
Bielli, M., Lauzi, S., Pratelli, A., Martini, M., Dall'Ara, P. and Bonizzi, L.: Pseudotuberculosis in marmosets, tamarins, and Goeldi's monkeys (Callithrichidae/Callicominidae) housed at a European zoo. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 30:532-536, 1999.
Carroll, J.B., Abbott, D.H., George, L.M., Hindle, J.E. and Martin, R.D.: Urinary endocrine monitoring of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii). J. Reprod. Fertil. 89:149-161, 1990.
Chaves, R., Sampaio, I., Schneider, M.P., Schneider, H., Page, S.L. and Goodman, M.: The place of Callimico goeldii in the Callitrichine phylogenetic tree: evidence from von Willebrand factor intron II sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 13:392-404, 1999.
Chiarelli, A.B.: The karyology of South American primates and their relationship to African and Asian species. Chapter 19, pp. 387-398 in, Evolutionary Biology of the New World Monkeys and Continental Drift. R. Ciochon and A.B. Chiarelli, eds. Plenum Press, NY 1980.
Dutrillaux, B., Lombardi, M., Carroll, J.B. and Martin, R.D.: Chromosomal affinities of Callimico goeldii (Platyrrhini) and characterization of a Y-autosome translocation in a male. Folia primatol. 50:230-236, 1988.
Heltne, P.G., Wojcik, J.F. and Pook, A.G.: Goeldi's monkey, Genus Callimico. Chapter 4, pp. 169-210, in Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1. A.F. Coimbra-Filho and R.A. Mittermeier, eds. Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro, 1981.
Hsu, T.C. and Hampton, S.H.: Chromosomes of Callithricidae with special reference e to an XX-'XO' sex chromosome system in Goeldi's marmoset (Callimico goeldii Thomas 1904). Folia primatol. 13:183-195, 1970.
Martin, R.D.: Goeldi and the dwarfs: the evolutionary biology of the small New World monkeys. J. Human Evol. 22:367-369, 1992.
Montagnon, D., Crovella, S. and Rumpler, Y.: Confirmation of the taxonomic position of Callimico goeldi (Paris). (Primates, Platyrrhini) on the basis of its highly repeated DNA patterns. Compte rendu Acad. Sci. III 316:219-223, 1993 Nowak, R.M.: Walker's Mammals of the World. 6th ed. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1999.
Soma, H. and Kada, H.: Placentation of the Goeldi's monkey, Callimico. 31. International Symp. Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere, Dortmund. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 93-98, 1989.
Ziegler, T.E., Snowdown, C.T., Warneke, M. and Bridson, W.E.: Urinary excretion of oestrone conjugates and gonadotrophins during pregnancy in the Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii). J. Reprod. Fertil. 89:163-168, 1990.
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