Bos (Bibos) javanicus
1) General Zoological Data
The Banteng is now classified as an endangered species, having been reduced in numbers significantly in most of its former habitat. This large bovid clusters with gaur in a detailed, modern molecular study by Buntjer et al. (2002). They are large, brown animals weighing up to 900 kg. Males are much darker and have longer horns. The name "banteng" is said to be of Malayan origin (Gotch, 1979). There is a good breeding colony at the San Diego Zoo from which these specimens have come. The longevity of bantengs is 26 years 7 months according to Jones (1993). Nowak (1999) reported that there are now 1.5 million domestic banteng ("Bali cattle") used for domestic work and meat. Feral Banteng also exist in Australia, originating from 20 imported animals in 1849. Numerous studies have examined the hemoglobin and other proteins in these Australian Bali cattle and these were compared them with other breeds (e.g., Bachman et al., 1978; Bell et al., 1981; Namikawa et al., 1983; Bell et al., 1990).
General Gestational Data
Banteng pregnancy lasts 9.5-10 months and it usually produces a single young. Twins are not uncommon, however. The estrous cycle lasts 3-4 weeks and sexual maturity is reached at 2 years. Newborns weigh around 30 kg (Puschmann, 1989). It has recently been possible to obtain calves by artificial insemination (Johnston et al., 2002).
No data have been reported on early implantation of banteng placentas. It is likely to be similar as in cattle since hybridization and embryo transfer are possible. Both uterine horns are employed in placentation.
General Characterization of the Placenta
Details of fetal/maternal barrier
These placentas are typical of most ungulate placentas in their histological appearance. They are cotyledonary, with major stem villi and fine branching of villous structures. The villi were covered by a single layer of trophoblast among which numerous binucleate cells were found. These were considerably larger than the other trophoblastic cells. As in most other ungulate placentas described here, the binucleate cells are presumed to be responsible for placental lactogen production. These aspects are further described in the deer placenta and that of other ungulates. Beneath the chorionic surface, the trophoblast is more cylindrical and has a paler cytoplasm. It is also frequently pigmented in a manner that is also described in detail in the descriptions of other ungulate placentas. The pigment does not stain for iron and its nature, as in other ungulates, is still unknown. While this region (and pigment) has been referred to as the "haemophagous organ" (speculated to contribute with iron transfer to the fetus from focal maternal hemorrhages), this is highly speculative in my opinion. Fresh blood is virtually never found in these locations.
The umbilical cords measured 10 cm and 22 cm in length, had four vessels, an allantoic duct and no twists. Numerous small vessels were also present in sections of the umbilical cord. No verrucous projections were found on the surface of these largely allantoic portions of the cords.
There are no reports.
Trophoblast external to barrier
I assume that, like other ungulates, there is no trophoblast invasion of the uterus.
|Embryo transfer into a domestic Simmental cow has been successful in Munich in 1983. (Wiesner et al., 1984). Two calves were born normally and survived; their placentas were reported to be of similar size and appearance to those of cattle.|
The San Diego Zoo exhibits now the first successfully cloned male banteng. The source of cells was a male that died in a battle between bulls; it had been born in 1974 and the fibroblasts had been kept in the “Frozen Zoo” of the Society. With the help of a Biotech Company, an enucleated ovum from a Simmental cow was used to place the fibroblast nucleus and a normal offspring resulted that is shown next. Its undescended testes underwent orchiopexy at about one year of age and the young bull (now 2 years old in 2005) is placed with females. It is hoped that its rare genotype will be ‘reinjected’ into the banteng herd.
Other remarks - What additional Information is needed?
Bell, K., Hopper, K.E. and McKenzie, H.A.: Bovine alpha-lactalbumin C and alpha S1-, beta- and kappa-caseins of Bali (Banteng) cattle Bos [Bibos] javanicus. Australian J. Biol. Sci. 34:149-159, 1981.
Bell, K., McKenzie, H.A. and Shaw, D.C.: Hemoglobin, serum albumin and transferring variants of Bali (Banteng) cattle, Bos [Bibos] javanicus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 95:825-832, 1990.
Buntjer, J.B., Otsen, M., Nijman, I.J., Kuiper, M.T. and Lenstra, J.A.: Phylogeny of bovine species based on AFLP fingerprinting. Heredity 88:46-51, 2002.
Gallagher, D.S., Davis, S.K., DeDonato, M., Burzlaff, J.D., Womack, J.E., Taylor, J.F. and Kumamoto, A.T.: A molecular cytogenetic analysis of the tribe Bovini (Artiodactyla: Bovidae: Bovinae) with an emphasis on sex chromosome morphology and NOR distribution. Chromosome Res. 7:481-492, 1999.
Gotch, A.F.: Mammals - Their Latin Names Explained. Blandford Press, Poole, Dorset, 1979.
A.P.: Mammalian Hybrids. A Check-list with Bibliography. 2nd edition.
Griner, L.A.: Pathology of Zoo Animals. Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego, California, 1983.
Hanichen, T., Reid, H.W., Wiesner, H. and Hermanns, W.: Malignant catarrhal fever in zoo ruminants. Tieraerztl. Prax. Ausg. G. Grosstiere Nutztiere. 26:294-300, 1998 (in German).
Hatkin, J.: Endemic malignant catarrhal fever at the San Diego wild animal park. J. Wildl. Dis. 16:439-443, 1980.
Johnston, S.D., McGowan, M.R. and Blyde, D.: Birth of a Banteng (Bos javanicus) calf at Western Plains Zoo after fixed time artificial insemination. Australian Vet. J. 80:94-95, 2002.
Jones, M.L.: Longevity of ungulates in captivity. Intern. Zoo Yearbk. 32:159-169, 1993.
Mayr, B., Schweizer, D., Mendelak, M., Krutzler, J., Schleger, W., Kalat, M. and Auer, H.: Levels of conservation and variation of heterochromatin and nucleolus organizers in the Bovidae. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 27:665-682, 1985.
Namikawa, T., Takenaka, O. and Takahashi, K.: Hemoglobin Bali (bovine): beta A 18(Bl)Lys leads to His: one of the "missing links" between beta A and beta B of domestic cattle exists in the Bali cattle (Bovinae, Bos banteng). Biochem. Genet. 21:787-796, 1983.
Nowak, R.M.: Walker's Mammals of the World. 6th ed. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1999.
Odening, K., Wesemeier, H.H., Walter, G. and Bockhardt, I.: On the morphological diagnostics and host specificity of the Sarcocystis species of some domesticated and wild bovini (cattle, Banteng and bison). Appl. Parasitol. 36:161-178, 1995.
Pathak, S. and Kieffer, N.M.: Sterility in hybrid cattle. I. Distribution of constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolus organizer regions in somatic and meiotic chromosomes. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 24:42-52, 1979.
Potter, W.L. and Upton, P.C.: Y chromosome morphology of cattle. Australian Vet. J. 55:539-541, 1979.
Potter, W.L., Upton, P.C., Cooper, J. and Blackshaw, A.W.: C- and G-banding patterns and chromosomal morphology of some breeds of Australian cattle. Australian Vet. J. 55:560-567, 1979.
Puschmann, W.: Zootierhaltung. Vol. 2, Säugetiere. VEB Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag Berlin, 1989.
Steklenev, E.P. and Elistratova, T.M.: The characteristics of reproductive capacity of hybrids of banteng (Bos [Bibos] javanicus d'Alton) with the domestic cow (Bos [Bos] primigenius taurus). Tsitol. Genet. 26:45-57, 1992 (in Russian).
Wiesner, H., Lempeter, W.W. and Rietschel, W.: Erfahrungen beim unblutigen Embryotransfer vom Banteng auf Hausrinder. Verhandl. 26. Intern. Sympos. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Brno, 1984. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, pp.99-102, 1984.
Wild, A.: Untersuchungen über den Aufbau der Placenta fetalis des Rindes und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Gesundheit des Kalbes. Zbl. Veterinärmedizin "B". 11:60-89, 1964.
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